08/07/2016 - LPC - Giulio Tononi conférence : “Sciences du Cerveau et de la Cognition”

Giulio Tononi le 8 juillet de 10h30 à 11h30 - Faculté de Médecine - Aix Marseille Université

“Sciences du Cerveau et de la Cognition”

Vendredi 8 juillet 2016 de 10h30-11h30
Salle de conférence Maurice Toga
Faculté de Médecine - Aix Marseille Université

Giulio Tononi
"Consciousness : From Theory to Practice"

Neuroscience has made great progress in relating the behavioral and neural correlates of consciousness. Yet it has proven hard to establish which neural structures and modes of activity are necessary and sufficient for being conscious. Moreover, empirical studies are inadequate to assess the presence and quality of consciousness in difficult cases, such as certain unresponsive patients, newborn infants, animals with behaviors and brains unlike ours, or machines that approximate our cognitive abilities. To make headway, empirical studies must be complemented by a fundamental theory of what consciousness is and what it takes to have it. Integrated information theory (IIT) starts from the essential properties of consciousness and translates them into requirements that any physical system must satisfy to be conscious. It goes on to show that the physical substrate of consciousness (PSC) must be a maximum of intrinsic, irreducible cause-effect power, and provides a calculus to determine, in principle, both the quality and the quantity of an experience. Applied to the brain, the principles of IIT imply that the PSC is constituted of those neural elements that together compose a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power, and that such maximum can shrink, move, split and disintegrate depending on various anatomical and physiological parameters. Similarly, IIT predicts that the spatial grain of the neural elements constituting the PSC, the temporal grain at which they do so, and the relevant neural states, are again those that maximize intrinsic cause-effect power. These predictions are in principle testable with stimulation and recording experiments at the systems and cellular levels. The theory can explain parsimoniously many known facts about the relationship between consciousness and the brain, including its association with certain cortical structures, its breakdown in deep sleep, anesthesia and seizures, and its return in dreams. Finally, the theory has motivated the development of promising new tests for the practical assessment of consciousness in non-communicative subjects.

 La conférence sera suivie d’un tutorial : Integrated Information Theory (IIT) : A tutorial, with an open discussion on the nature of consciousness

14:00 : Overview of the tutorial
14:05 : Axioms and postulates of IIT
- Intrinsic existence
- Composition
- Information
- Integration
- Exclusion
- An experience as a conceptual structure
14:40 :
- Explanatory, predictive, and inferential power of IIT
- Integrated information – a practical approach
- Sleep
- Anesthesia
- Disorders of consciousness
15:20-15:30 : break
15:30 : Consciousness in nature and in artificial systems
- Macro and micro
- Consciousness in animals and in machines : a difficult call
- A double dissociation between consciousness and intelligence
- If consciousness is integrated information, is consciousness everywhere ?
- Why did consciousness evolve ? Insights from evolving animats
[Questions, Discussions] : Open issues and future developments
- Integrated information and Shannon information
- Consciousness, meaning, and matching
- Concluding remarks